Segregation of halides in solar cells with a universal cage

Segregation of halides in solar cells with a universal cage

In a current article printed within the journal ACS Energy Lettersresearchers have mentioned the usefulness of a common grain cage for inorganic combined halide perovskite photo voltaic cells to forestall halide segregation.

Research: A universal grain “cage” for suppressing halide segregation from inorganic mixed halide perovskite solar cells. Picture Credit score: Perutskyi Petro/


The facility conversion effectivity (PCE) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (PSC) photo voltaic cells has been documented to be near one of the best monocrystalline silicon photo voltaic cell, however there may be much less room for PCE improve in due to the Shockley–Queisser (SQ) restrict. The fabrication of multi-junction tandem cells to extend photo voltaic spectrum overlap and reduce thermalization loss is among the attainable options to this technological constraint.

Blended halide perovskites excel in reaching this aim by contemplating their bandgap tunability, which sadly causes substantial halide segregation underneath steady illumination. Subsequently, to use huge bandgap and combined halide perovskite in tandem patterns, an efficient method to cut back this photo-demixing tendency needs to be developed.

Just a few mechanisms explaining the thermodynamic driving pressure of halide segregation have to this point been recognized. These mechanisms supply strategies for logically creating supplies to harden the tender perovskite community. All these eventualities have the identical precept of contemplating the vacancy-assisted migration course of whereas closing the ion-ion or ion-vacancy migration channels. Iodide ions undergo from grain-boundary and nucleent diffusion at grain boundaries to generate an iodide-rich section. To forestall the buildup of iodide ions and thus inhibit halide segregation, it’s essential to exactly handle the grain boundary within the perovskite layer.

Concerning the examine

On this examine, the authors mentioned a basic caging method to forestall halide segregation through the synthesis of combined halide perovskite. This system concerned the on the spot manufacturing of conjugated covalent natural frameworks (COF), that are catalyzed by PbX2 (X = Br and I). The robust electron donor property of COFs has been demonstrated by theoretical evaluation and in depth investigation to successfully harden the tender lattice and hinder the passage of iodide ions from bulk to grain boundary, slowing down the halide demixing course of induced by mild.

The staff demonstrated that non-radiative recombination was significantly diminished, rising effectivity as much as 11.50% for an inorganic CsPbIBr2 perovskite photo voltaic cell and 14.35% for a CsPbI2Br cell with longer shelf life and better photostability. A grain cage has been proposed for on the spot type 2D conjugated COFs on the floor and grain boundaries of perovskite utilizing two small natural molecules, 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde (BPDA) and 4,4′,4′′-(1,3,5- Triazine-2,4,6-triyl)trianiline (TAPT), in precursor answer. Because of the elevated activation vitality of ion migration and emptiness formation vitality brought on by the robust interplay between perovskite and COFs, PbX2The catalyzed COFs not solely contributed to the side-scattering defensive matrix between the interconnected grains, but in addition efficiently passivated dangerous defects to cut back non-radiative recombination.

Researchers created potent combined halide PSCs with 11.50% elevated PCEs for CsPbIBr2 PSC, which was fully inorganic, and 14.35% for CsPbI2Br cell utilizing the proposed grain caging method. One of the best PSC with out encapsulation exhibited 28-fold elevated photostability underneath customary daylight underneath ambient circumstances, along with excellent storage stability for 60 days. Inorganic CsPbIBr2 was chosen as a prototype to check the affect of COFs on section deterioration.


The defect density of the optimized gadget was 1.98 x 1016 cm3which was considerably decrease than the management gadget density of two.11 x 1016 cm3. This was made attainable by reducing the entice fill voltage restrict (VTFL) from 1.23 to 1.15 V. A considerably increased contact potential distinction (CPD) of fifty.9 mV for the COF-perovskite movie than for the management movie implied that there have been extra holes on the floor after illumination.

The PSC champion with 0.10 mg mL-1 focus reaches a PCE of 11.50%, a Vof oc of 1.327 V, a short-circuit present density (Jsc) of 11.95 mA cm2 and a fill issue (FF) of 72.55% after optimizing the COF dosage within the perovskite movie by controlling the quantity of monomer within the precursor answer. For I-rich CsPbI2Br PSC, an improved PCE of as much as 14.35% was achieved, which proved the prevalence of the grain cage to help the sensible implementation of huge bandgap PSC in tandem fashions.

After 250 hours of most energy level monitoring underneath steady AM1.5G photo voltaic spectrum illumination, the optimized gadget retained 75.3% of its authentic effectivity whereas the management gadget degraded to close zero after 100 hours, which prolonged the lifetime of the T80 by about 28 instances.


In conclusion, this examine mentioned a common grain cage strategy to on the spot manufacturing of natural COFs on the grain boundaries and floor of the perovskite by way of the insertion of monomer molecules into the perovskite precursor answer for operationally steady and extremely environment friendly huge bandgap PSCs.

Attributable to increased ion migration activation vitality and emptiness formation vitality brought on by PbX2, COFs have been chemically bonded to the perovskite lattice to concurrently suppress halide segregation and passivate defects. Consequently, non-radiative recombination loss was diminished, leading to champion PCEs of 11.50% and 14.35% for inorganic CsPbIBr.2 and CsPbI2Br PSC based mostly on carbon electrodes, respectively. Along with having distinctive long-term resistance to warmth and humidity, the ensuing PSC had 28 instances the photostability.

The authors talked about that the proposed strategy gives the likelihood to beat the disadvantages of huge bandgap perovskites and to enhance their closing implementation in tandem and semi-transparent photovoltaics, bearing in mind the meant software in different combined halide methods.

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Zhang, J., Duan, J., Guo, Q., et al. A common grain “cage” for suppressing halide segregation from inorganic combined halide perovskite photo voltaic cells. ACS Power Letters, 7, 3467-3475 (2022).

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